It's a jungle out there - the strange animals of economic organization in agri-food value chains

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It's a jungle out there - the strange animals of economic organization in agri-food value chains by Gaetano Martino,Konstantinos Karantininis,Stefano Pascucci,Liesbeth Dries,Jean Marie Codron Summary

This book aims to explore the variety in organizational forms that exists in the European agri-food sector, and to identify an appropriate theoretical framework that includes a set of conceptual instruments to analyse this variety. Moreover, this framework should be helpful in the exploration of the relationship between organizations and the regulatory domain. The book focuses on organizational forms under two perspectives. First, it underlines the variety in organizational forms and their internal complexity. Second, it includes a series of case studies from different theoretical perspectives that highlight diversity within the agri-food sector, spanning from the adoption of standards to producer organizations. The book then proposes a conceptual foundation that can help in the design of applied theoretical frameworks to address the variety and the complexity of the organizational modes in agri-food supply systems.

Food Traceability in Jordan

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Food Traceability in Jordan by Moawiya A. Haddad Summary

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Raw Material Scarcity and Overproduction in the Food Industry

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Raw Material Scarcity and Overproduction in the Food Industry by Suresh D. Sharma,Arpan R. Bhagat,Salvatore Parisi Summary

This book describes the consequences of an increased demand for food for human consumption for the global food industry. In four concise chapters, the authors explore the trend for the overproduction of food, the concomitant diminution of raw materials and the increase in environmental concerns. Chapter one describes the variations in biochemical properties of fishmeal depending on the season and geographical location. Chapter two discusses how the expansion of cropland and pastures to meet the rising demand for food is damaging the environment, while chapter three examines the impact of bee viruses on food crops and production. Lastly, the fourth chapter addresses the issue of food adulteration and provides specific examples of fraud in the American dairy industry. This book is of interest to researchers working in the area of food production in academia and industry, as well as certification and scientific bodies involved in food inspection.

Big Farms Make Big Flu

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Big Farms Make Big Flu by Rob Wallace Summary

Thanks to breakthroughs in production and food science, agribusiness has been able to devise new ways to grow more food and get it more places more quickly. There is no shortage of news items on hundreds of thousands of hybrid poultry – each animal genetically identical to the next – packed together in megabarns, grown out in a matter of months, then slaughtered, processed and shipped to the other side of the globe. Less well known are the deadly pathogens mutating in, and emerging out of, these specialized agro-environments. In fact, many of the most dangerous new diseases in humans can be traced back to such food systems, among them Campylobacter, Nipah virus, Q fever, hepatitis E, and a variety of novel influenza variants. Agribusiness has known for decades that packing thousands of birds or livestock together results in a monoculture that selects for such disease. But market economics doesn't punish the companies for growing Big Flu – it punishes animals, the environment, consumers, and contract farmers. Alongside growing profits, diseases are permitted to emerge, evolve, and spread with little check. “That is,” writes evolutionary biologist Rob Wallace, “it pays to produce a pathogen that could kill a billion people.” In Big Farms Make Big Flu, a collection of dispatches by turns harrowing and thought-provoking, Wallace tracks the ways influenza and other pathogens emerge from an agriculture controlled by multinational corporations. Wallace details, with a precise and radical wit, the latest in the science of agricultural epidemiology, while at the same time juxtaposing ghastly phenomena such as attempts at producing featherless chickens, microbial time travel, and neoliberal Ebola. Wallace also offers sensible alternatives to lethal agribusiness. Some, such as farming cooperatives, integrated pathogen management, and mixed crop-livestock systems, are already in practice off the agribusiness grid. While many books cover facets of food or outbreaks, Wallace's collection appears the first to explore infectious disease, agriculture, economics and the nature of science together. Big Farms Make Big Flu integrates the political economies of disease and science to derive a new understanding of the evolution of infections. Highly capitalized agriculture may be farming pathogens as much as chickens or corn.

Challenging Chains to Change

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Challenging Chains to Change by Anna Laven Summary

Very often, efforts to improve value chains miss out half of the population -- the female half. It is men who sell the products and who keep the money from those sales. The women, who do much of the work but are not recognised for it, often have to work even harder to meet ever-increasing quality requirements. But they see few of the benefits. How to change this? This book explains how development organisations and private entrepreneurs have found ways to improve the position of women in value chains especially small-scale women farmers and primary processors. It outlines five broad strategies for doing this: (1) working with women on typical "women's products" such as shea, poultry and dairy, (2) opening up opportunities for women to work on what are traditionally "mens commodities" or in mens domains, (3) supporting women and men in organising for change by building capacity, organisation, sensitisation and access to finance, (4) using standards and certification to promote gender equity, and (5) promoting gender-responsible business. The book draws on dozens of cases from all over the world, covering a wide range of crops and livestock products. These include traditional subsistence products (such as rice), small-scale cash items (honey, vegetables) as well as export commodities (artichokes, coffee) and biofuels (jatropha). The book includes a range of tools and methodologies for analysing and developing value chains with gender in mind. By bringing together the two fields of gender and value chains, this book offers a set of compelling arguments for addressing gender in value chain development. It proposes an analytical framework that builds on both fields. It outlines five strategies for development organisations and enterprises to ensure that women can participate in value chains as full partners and decision-makers. The overall result is to improve value chain performance, with both women and men able to enjoy the benefits.

Field guide to the culture of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier, 1816)

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Field guide to the culture of Tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum, Cuvier, 1816) by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

Following a short introduction to the species and its closest commercially viable related species, namely pirapatinga (Piaractus brachypomus) and pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus), this field guide provides practical information on the culture and reproduction of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum). As a field guide it aims to support the understanding and dissemination of applicable technologies for the culture and reproduction of tambaqui, i.e. what should be done – as well as when and how it should be done – in order to achieve success in the artificial propagation as well as the fingerling and table fish production stages. The concise technical descriptions in this guide are accompanied by self-explanatory illustrations and a reader-friendly glossary of technical terms, which is important for tambaqui aquaculture farmers.

Mother Jones Magazine

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Mother Jones Magazine by N.A Summary

Mother Jones is an award-winning national magazine widely respected for its groundbreaking investigative reporting and coverage of sustainability and environmental issues.

Justice in the Forest

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Justice in the Forest by Marcus Colchester Summary

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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists by N.A Summary

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

Science Breakthroughs to Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030

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Science Breakthroughs to Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030 by National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Board on Environmental Change and Society,Health and Medicine Division,Food and Nutrition Board,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Water Science and Technology Board,Board on Life Sciences,Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Committee on Science Breakthroughs 2030: A Strategy for Food and Agricultural Research Summary

For nearly a century, scientific advances have fueled progress in U.S. agriculture to enable American producers to deliver safe and abundant food domestically and provide a trade surplus in bulk and high-value agricultural commodities and foods. Today, the U.S. food and agricultural enterprise faces formidable challenges that will test its long-term sustainability, competitiveness, and resilience. On its current path, future productivity in the U.S. agricultural system is likely to come with trade-offs. The success of agriculture is tied to natural systems, and these systems are showing signs of stress, even more so with the change in climate. More than a third of the food produced is unconsumed, an unacceptable loss of food and nutrients at a time of heightened global food demand. Increased food animal production to meet greater demand will generate more greenhouse gas emissions and excess animal waste. The U.S. food supply is generally secure, but is not immune to the costly and deadly shocks of continuing outbreaks of food-borne illness or to the constant threat of pests and pathogens to crops, livestock, and poultry. U.S. farmers and producers are at the front lines and will need more tools to manage the pressures they face. Science Breakthroughs to Advance Food and Agricultural Research by 2030 identifies innovative, emerging scientific advances for making the U.S. food and agricultural system more efficient, resilient, and sustainable. This report explores the availability of relatively new scientific developments across all disciplines that could accelerate progress toward these goals. It identifies the most promising scientific breakthroughs that could have the greatest positive impact on food and agriculture, and that are possible to achieve in the next decade (by 2030).

Poplars and Willows

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Poplars and Willows by Jud G. Isebrands,Jim Richardson Summary

Poplars and willows form an important component of forestry and agricultural systems, providing a wide range of wood and non-wood products. This book synthesizes research on poplars and willows, providing a practical worldwide overview and guide to their basic characteristics, cultivation and use, issues, problems and trends. Prominence is given to environmental benefits and the importance of poplar and willow cultivation in meeting the needs of people and communities, sustainable livelihoods, land use and development.

The Value of Culture

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The Value of Culture by Arjo Klamer Summary

Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the usual focus on formal problems, which has 'de-cultured' and 'de-moralized' the practice of economics, this book brings together economists, philosophers, historians, political scientists and artists to try to sort out the value of culture. This is a book not only for economists and social scientists, but also for anybody actively involved in the world of the arts and culture.

The Miombo in Transition

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The Miombo in Transition by Bruce Morgan Campbell Summary

Miombo woodlands and their use: overview and key issues. The ecology of miombo woodlands. Population biology of miombo tree. Miombo woodlands in the wider context: macro-economic and inter-sectoral influences. Rural households and miombo woodlands: use, value and management. Trade in woodland products from the miombo region. Managing miombo woodland. Institutional arrangements governing the use and the management of miombo woodlands. Miombo woodlands and rural livelihoods: options and opportunities.

Edible Insects

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Edible Insects by Arnold van Huis,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

Edible insects have always been a part of human diets, but in some societies there remains a degree of disdain and disgust for their consumption. Insects offer a significant opportunity to merge traditional knowledge and modern science to improve human food security worldwide. This publication describes the contribution of insects to food security and examines future prospects for raising insects at a commercial scale to improve food and feed production, diversify diets, and support livelihoods in both developing and developed countries. Edible insects are a promising alternative to the conventional production of meat, either for direct human consumption or for indirect use as feedstock. This publication will boost awareness of the many valuable roles that insects play in sustaining nature and human life, and it will stimulate debate on the expansion of the use of insects as food and feed.

Domesticating Forests: How Farmers Manage Forest Resources

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Domesticating Forests: How Farmers Manage Forest Resources by Geneviève Michon Summary

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Palms of controversies

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Palms of controversies by Alain Rival,Patrice Levang Summary

The rapid development of oil palm cultivation feeds many social issues such as biodiversity, deforestation, food habits or ethical investments. How can this palm be viewed as a ‘miracle plant’ by both the agro-food industry in the North and farmers in the tropical zone, but a serious ecological threat by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) campaigning for the environment or rights of local indigenous peoples? In the present book the authors – a biologist and an agricultural economist- describe a global and complex tropical sector, for which the interests of the many different stakeholders are often antagonistic. Oil palm has become emblematic of recent changes in North-South relationship in agricultural development. Indeed, palm oil is produced and consumed in the South; its trade is driven by emerging countries, although the major part of its transformations is made in the North that still hosts the largest multinational agro industries. It is also in the North that the sector is challenged on ethical and environmental issues. Public controversy over palm oil is often opinionated and it is fed by definitive and sometimes exaggerated statements. Researchers are conveying a more nuanced speech, which is supported by scientific data and a shared field experience. Their work helps in building a more balanced view, moving attention to the South, the region of exclusive production and major consumption of palm oil.

Global Re-introduction Perspectives

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Global Re-introduction Perspectives by Pritpal S. Soorae Summary

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Biodiversity and Human Health

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Biodiversity and Human Health by Francesca Grifo,Joshua Rosenthal Summary

Biodiversity and Human Health brings together leading thinkers on the global environment and biomedicine to explore the human health consequences of the loss of biological diversity.

Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach

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Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach by Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Forum on Microbial Threats Summary

Globalization of the food supply has created conditions favorable for the emergence, reemergence, and spread of food-borne pathogens-compounding the challenge of anticipating, detecting, and effectively responding to food-borne threats to health. In the United States, food-borne agents affect 1 out of 6 individuals and cause approximately 48 million illnesses, 128,000 hospitalizations, and 3,000 deaths each year. This figure likely represents just the tip of the iceberg, because it fails to account for the broad array of food-borne illnesses or for their wide-ranging repercussions for consumers, government, and the food industry-both domestically and internationally. A One Health approach to food safety may hold the promise of harnessing and integrating the expertise and resources from across the spectrum of multiple health domains including the human and veterinary medical and plant pathology communities with those of the wildlife and aquatic health and ecology communities. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats hosted a public workshop on December 13 and 14, 2011 that examined issues critical to the protection of the nation's food supply. The workshop explored existing knowledge and unanswered questions on the nature and extent of food-borne threats to health. Participants discussed the globalization of the U.S. food supply and the burden of illness associated with foodborne threats to health; considered the spectrum of food-borne threats as well as illustrative case studies; reviewed existing research, policies, and practices to prevent and mitigate foodborne threats; and, identified opportunities to reduce future threats to the nation's food supply through the use of a "One Health" approach to food safety. Improving Food Safety Through a One Health Approach: Workshop Summary covers the events of the workshop and explains the recommendations for future related workshops.

Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

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Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists by N.A Summary

The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists is the premier public resource on scientific and technological developments that impact global security. Founded by Manhattan Project Scientists, the Bulletin's iconic "Doomsday Clock" stimulates solutions for a safer world.

Just a Dog

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Just a Dog by Arnold Arluke Summary

How can we make sense of acts of cruelty towards animals?

In Partnership with Nature

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In Partnership with Nature by Daniel Behrman,Unesco Summary

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The Youth Guide to Forests

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The Youth Guide to Forests by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

This fact-filled guide explores forests from the equator to the frozen poles, the depths of the rainforest to the mountain forests at high altitudes. It also demonstrates the many benefits that forests provide us with, discusses the negative impacts that humans unfortunately have on forests and explains how good management can help protect and conserve forests and forest biodiversity. At the end of the guide, inspiring examples of youth-led initiatives and an easy-to-follow action plan will help young people develop their own forest conservation activities and projects.

Fruit Trees and Useful Plants in Amazonian Life

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Fruit Trees and Useful Plants in Amazonian Life by Patricia Shanley Summary

This publication is a testament to the potential of integrating traditional and scientific knowledge of both local communities and academic and development professionals alike. It also serves as a reminder to the scientific community that science should be shared with local people and not confined to journals and closed circles of technical experts. Scientists and forest-reliant communities are geographically and conceptually distant. Scientific findings are rarely shared with local people and locals are infrequently consulted regarding the species and landscapes they have known for generations. To bridge this divide, this book weaves together the voices of farmers and scientists; hunters and policy makers; midwives and musicians. From Brazil nuts and Cat's claw to Copaiba and Titica, this book shares a wealth of information on a wide range of plant species that comes only from the close collaboration between local peoples and researchers.

The College Film Library Collection

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The College Film Library Collection by Emily Strange Jones Summary

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A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System

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A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System by National Research Council,Institute of Medicine,Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources,Food and Nutrition Board,Committee on a Framework for Assessing the Health, Environmental, and Social Effects of the Food System Summary

How we produce and consume food has a bigger impact on Americans' well-being than any other human activity. The food industry is the largest sector of our economy; food touches everything from our health to the environment, climate change, economic inequality, and the federal budget. From the earliest developments of agriculture, a major goal has been to attain sufficient foods that provide the energy and the nutrients needed for a healthy, active life. Over time, food production, processing, marketing, and consumption have evolved and become highly complex. The challenges of improving the food system in the 21st century will require systemic approaches that take full account of social, economic, ecological, and evolutionary factors. Policy or business interventions involving a segment of the food system often have consequences beyond the original issue the intervention was meant to address. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System develops an analytical framework for assessing effects associated with the ways in which food is grown, processed, distributed, marketed, retailed, and consumed in the United States. The framework will allow users to recognize effects across the full food system, consider all domains and dimensions of effects, account for systems dynamics and complexities, and choose appropriate methods for analysis. This report provides example applications of the framework based on complex questions that are currently under debate: consumption of a healthy and safe diet, food security, animal welfare, and preserving the environment and its resources. A Framework for Assessing Effects of the Food System describes the U.S. food system and provides a brief history of its evolution into the current system. This report identifies some of the real and potential implications of the current system in terms of its health, environmental, and socioeconomic effects along with a sense for the complexities of the system, potential metrics, and some of the data needs that are required to assess the effects. The overview of the food system and the framework described in this report will be an essential resource for decision makers, researchers, and others to examine the possible impacts of alternative policies or agricultural or food processing practices.

Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people

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Climate change vulnerability assessment of forests and forest-dependent people by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

Negative impacts of climate change on forests threaten the delivery of crucial wood and non-wood goods and environmental services on which an estimated 1.6 billion people fully or partly depend. Assessment of the vulnerability of forests and forest-dependent people to climate change is a necessary first step for identifying the risks and the most vulnerable areas and people, and for developing measures for adaptation and targeting them for specific contexts. This publication provides practical technical guidance for forest vulnerability assessment in the context of climate change. It describes the elements that should be considered for different time horizons and outlines a structured approach for conducting these assessments. The framework will guide practitioners in conducting a step-by-step analysis and will facilitate the choice and use of appropriate tools and methods. Background information is provided separately in text boxes, to assist readers with differing amounts of experience in forestry, climate change and assessment practices. The publication will provide useful support to any vulnerability assessment with a forest- and tree-related component.

REDD+ on the ground

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REDD+ on the ground by Erin O Sills,Stibniati S Atmadja,Claudio de Sassi,Amy E Duchelle,Demetrius L Kweka,Ida Aju Pradnja Resosudarmo,William D Sunderlin Summary

REDD+ is one of the leading near-term options for global climate change mitigation. More than 300 subnational REDD+ initiatives have been launched across the tropics, responding to both the call for demonstration activities in the Bali Action Plan and the market for voluntary carbon offset credits.

Socially Inclusive Business

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Socially Inclusive Business by Patricia C. Márquez,Ezequiel Reficco,Gabriel Berger Summary

The idea that market mechanisms can mobilize social change by engaging the poor in win-win scenarios is gaining increased world attention. Companies, social sector organizations, and development agencies are all beginning to glean the potential that lies among the world's poorest people, both as an untapped productive force and a neglected consumer market. This book aims to demonstrate how the private sector can become part of the solution of poverty. In this study, the authors assess market initiatives in Iberoamerica by large corporations, cooperatives, small and medium enterprises, and nonprofit organizations. A task force drawing on nine teams of researchers from various business schools and universities in nine countries examined 33 experiences, seeking to uncover "what's needed" for building new business value chains that help move people out of poverty.

Small-Scale Aquaponic Food Production

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Small-Scale Aquaponic Food Production by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

Aquaponics is the integration of aquaculture and soilless culture in a closed production system. This manual details aquaponics for small-scale production--predominantly for home use. It is divided into nine chapters and seven annexes, with each chapter dedicated to an individual module of aquaponics. The target audience for this manual is agriculture extension agents, regional fisheries officers, non-governmental organizations, community organizers, government ministers, companies and singles worldwide. The intention is to bring a general understanding of aquaponics to people who previously may have only known about one aspect.

Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity

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Cultural and Spiritual Values of Biodiversity by Programme des Nations Unies pour l'environnement,United Nations Environment Programme Summary

Weaving together philosophical, historical, legal, scientific and personal viewpoints, this book gives a rich sample of the vast web which makes up our cultural, spiritual and social diversity. It demonstrates how many cultures see Nature as an extension of society, and how sensitive stewardship is an integral part of existence.

Realising REDD+

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Realising REDD+ by Arild Angelsen Summary

REDD+ must be transformational. REDD+ requires broad institutional and governance reforms, such as tenure, decentralisation, and corruption control. These reforms will enable departures from business as usual, and involve communities and forest users in making and implementing policies that a ect them. Policies must go beyond forestry. REDD+ strategies must include policies outside the forestry sector narrowly de ned, such as agriculture and energy, and better coordinate across sectors to deal with non-forest drivers of deforestation and degradation. Performance-based payments are key, yet limited. Payments based on performance directly incentivise and compensate forest owners and users. But schemes such as payments for environmental services (PES) depend on conditions, such as secure tenure, solid carbon data and transparent governance, that are often lacking and take time to change. This constraint reinforces the need for broad institutional and policy reforms. We must learn from the past. Many approaches to REDD+ now being considered are similar to previous e orts to conserve and better manage forests, often with limited success. Taking on board lessons learned from past experience will improve the prospects of REDD+ e ectiveness. National circumstances and uncertainty must be factored in. Di erent country contexts will create a variety of REDD+ models with di erent institutional and policy mixes. Uncertainties about the shape of the future global REDD+ system, national readiness and political consensus require  exibility and a phased approach to REDD+ implementation.

When Every Household is an Island

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When Every Household is an Island by Jan Ovesen,Ing-Britt Trankell,Joakim Öjendal Summary

Download or read When Every Household is an Island book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Forests Challenge Badge

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Forests Challenge Badge by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

The purpose of the United Nations Challenge Badges is to raise awareness, educate and motivate young people to change their behaviour and be active agents of change in their local communities. Additional badges are available or are being developed on a number of other topics including: Agriculture, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Energy, Governance, Hunger, Nutrition, the Ocean, Soils and Water. The Forests Challenge Badge is designed to help educate children and young people about the crucial role that forests play for life on our planet. This booklet includes basic educational contents on the different types of forests and where they grow. It explains how forests provide essential ecosystem services such as clean air, water, and climate change mitigation. It also describes various forest resources and explains how millions of people worldwide rely on forests for their livelihoods. The badge describes the threats to our planet’s forests and what is being done to protect them. This material is appropriate for use in school classes, Guide or Scout groups or youth meetings generally. It includes a wide range of activities and ideas to stimulate learning about the importance of forests, while motivating children and young people to help protect forests and become aware of the impacts of their actions on the environment.

Producing Nature and Poverty in Africa

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Producing Nature and Poverty in Africa by Vigdis Broch-Due,Richard A. Schroeder Summary

Drawing on case studies from eight different countries, the con-tributors to this provocative collection of essays demonstrate quite clearly that environmental programmes often have direct and far-reaching consequences for the distribution of wealth and poverty and that they constitute one of the major forms of foreign and state intervention in contemporary African affairs.

Bees and Their Role in Forest Livelihoods

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Bees and Their Role in Forest Livelihoods by Nicola Bradbear,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

This volume provides basic information about managing wild bees and on the use of their products. It identifies and describes major bee species and their importance for nature conservation and for sustaining livelihoods of rural people. Bee products are considered at both subsistence and commercial level, and particular attention is given to the potential for further development of managing wild been species in developing countries. The role of bees for pollination of crops and the impact of managing bees on forestry and farming are presented. Wild-bee keeping techniques, honey production and marketing, and the international trade in been products are described with further references and sources of additional information given. Using this publication, readers will better understand the complexities and opportunities for developing apiculture by rural livelihoods. Also published in French.

Living in and from the forests of Central Africa

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Living in and from the forests of Central Africa by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations Summary

Living in and from the forests of Central Africa is intended first and foremost as a full-scale extension tool concerning NWFPs in Central Africa. It is a work on the groups who have always lived in these forests, forests that contribute to every aspect of their daily lives, both material and spiritual, and enable them to survive even in periods of extreme crisis.