The Invention of Religion

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The Invention of Religion by Derek R. Peterson,Darren R. Walhof Summary

Is religion an obstacle to the values of modernity? Popular and scholarly opinion says that it is. In a world gripped in a clash of civilizations, religious absolutism seems to threaten the modern virtues of tolerance, reason, and freedom. This collection of historical essays argues that this popular view--religion versus modernity--is used by the politically powerful to construct the religious as irrational and antimodern. The authors study how nationalists, state officials, missionaries, and scholars in the West and in the colonized world defined and redefined the relationship between the political and the religious --From publisher's description.

The Invention of Religion

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The Invention of Religion by Jan Assmann Summary

A groundbreaking account of how the Book of Exodus shaped fundamental aspects of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam The Book of Exodus may be the most consequential story ever told. But its spectacular moments of heaven-sent plagues and parting seas overshadow its true significance, says Jan Assmann, a leading historian of ancient religion. The story of Moses guiding the enslaved children of Israel out of captivity to become God's chosen people is the foundation of an entirely new idea of religion, one that lives on today in many of the world's faiths. First introduced in Exodus, new ideas of faith, revelation, and above all covenant transformed basic assumptions about humankind’s relationship to the divine and became the bedrock of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

The Invention of Religion in Japan

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The Invention of Religion in Japan by Jason Ananda Josephson Summary

Throughout its long history, Japan had no concept of what we call “religion.” There was no corresponding Japanese word, nor anything close to its meaning. But when American warships appeared off the coast of Japan in 1853 and forced the Japanese government to sign treaties demanding, among other things, freedom of religion, the country had to contend with this Western idea. In this book, Jason Ananda Josephson reveals how Japanese officials invented religion in Japan and traces the sweeping intellectual, legal, and cultural changes that followed. More than a tale of oppression or hegemony, Josephson’s account demonstrates that the process of articulating religion offered the Japanese state a valuable opportunity. In addition to carving out space for belief in Christianity and certain forms of Buddhism, Japanese officials excluded Shinto from the category. Instead, they enshrined it as a national ideology while relegating the popular practices of indigenous shamans and female mediums to the category of “superstitions”—and thus beyond the sphere of tolerance. Josephson argues that the invention of religion in Japan was a politically charged, boundary-drawing exercise that not only extensively reclassified the inherited materials of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Shinto to lasting effect, but also reshaped, in subtle but significant ways, our own formulation of the concept of religion today. This ambitious and wide-ranging book contributes an important perspective to broader debates on the nature of religion, the secular, science, and superstition.

The Invention of World Religions

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The Invention of World Religions by Tomoko Masuzawa Summary

The idea of "world religions" expresses a vague commitment to multiculturalism. Not merely a descriptive concept, "world religions" is actually a particular ethos, a pluralist ideology, a logic of classification, and a form of knowledge that has shaped the study of religion and infiltrated ordinary language. In this ambitious study, Tomoko Masuzawa examines the emergence of "world religions" in modern European thought. Devoting particular attention to the relation between the comparative study of language and the nascent science of religion, she demonstrates how new classifications of language and race caused Buddhism and Islam to gain special significance, as these religions came to be seen in opposing terms-Aryan on one hand and Semitic on the other. Masuzawa also explores the complex relation of "world religions" to Protestant theology, from the hierarchical ordering of religions typical of the Christian supremacists of the nineteenth century to the aspirations of early twentieth-century theologian Ernst Troeltsch, who embraced the pluralist logic of "world religions" and by so doing sought to reclaim the universalist destiny of European modernity.

The Invention of Religions

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The Invention of Religions by Daniel Dubuisson Summary

For nearly thirty years, a scientific revolution has taken place in the religious studies departments of several North American and British universities--and the results are considerable, obliging us to envisage new ways of conceiving of this academic field. While the History of Religions tended to rest in the shade and guardianship of past authorities, this critical current has re-examined the discipline's a priori positions, its favourite arguments, its long prehistory within Euro/Christian culture, but also its numerous ethnocentric prejudices. The first part of the volume considers anew the origins and Christian history of the notion of religion. This starting point then allows us to identify dead ends and contradictions within the traditional History of Religions approach. The second part is dedicated to the synthetic presentation of the concepts, methods, and controversies, which distinguish this current. Following this are two related contributions devoted to two major case studies: "Colonialism and Cultural Imperialism" and "The Invention of Hinduism and Shintoism". Finally, in the third and last part of the book, this trend itself is critically examined. The author identifies some of the paradoxes, gaps, and aporias that this approach has already gathered during its short existence.

L'Invention de Dieu

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L'Invention de Dieu by Thomas Römer Summary

Si le judaïsme et, à sa suite, le christianisme et l’islam proclament l’unicité d’un dieu régnant seul de toute éternité sur le ciel et la terre, la Bible hébraïque elle-même témoigne, pour qui la lit attentivement, de ses racines polythéistes. De fait, le « dieu d’Abraham » auquel se réfèrent, chacune à sa manière, les trois religions du Livre n’a pas été unique depuis toujours.Comment un dieu parmi les autres est-il devenu Dieu ? Telle est l’énigme fondatrice que cette plongée aux sources du monothéisme se propose d’élucider en parcourant, sur un millénaire, les étapes de son invention. D’où vient ce dieu et par quel biais s’est-il révélé à « Israël » ? Quels étaient ses attributs et quel était son nom avant que celui-ci ne devienne imprononçable ? Quand accéda-t-il au statut de dieu tutélaire des royaumes d’Israël et de Juda ? Sous quelles formes était-il vénéré et représenté ? Pourquoi les autres divinités au côté desquelles il trônait déchurent-elles ? Au terme de quel processus et en réaction à quels événements le culte exclusif qui lui a progressivement été rendu s’est-il imposé ?À la lumière de la critique historique, philologique et exégétique et des plus récentes découvertes de l’archéologie et de l’épigraphie, Thomas Römer livre les réponses d’une enquête rigoureuse et passionnante sur les traces d’une divinité de l’orage et de la guerre érigée, après sa « victoire » sur ses rivaux, en dieu unique, universel et transcendant.Spécialiste mondialement reconnu de l’Ancien Testament, Thomas Römer occupe la chaire « Milieux bibliques » au Collège de France ; il est également professeur à la Faculté de théologie et de sciences des religions de l’Université de Lausanne.

The Invention of a New Religion

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The Invention of a New Religion by Basil Hall Chamberlain Summary

"The Invention of a New Religion" by Basil Hall Chamberlain. Published by Good Press. Good Press publishes a wide range of titles that encompasses every genre. From well-known classics & literary fiction and non-fiction to forgotten−or yet undiscovered gems−of world literature, we issue the books that need to be read. Each Good Press edition has been meticulously edited and formatted to boost readability for all e-readers and devices. Our goal is to produce eBooks that are user-friendly and accessible to everyone in a high-quality digital format.

Bastide on Religion

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Bastide on Religion by Michel Despland Summary

Roger Bastide developed the theory of acculturation which provides a framework for understanding contact between different cultures and beliefs. 'Bastide on Religion' offers a clear introduction to the life and work of this influential scholar. The volume focuses on Bastide's study of Afro-Brazilian religions, in particular his study of Candomble, a religion born from the contact between African and Brazilian cultures. The book outlines Bastide's work on acculturation, his concept of the relationship between religion and culture, and his challenge to many dominant approaches to economic development.

Perspectives on Method and Theory in the Study of Religion

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Perspectives on Method and Theory in the Study of Religion by International Association for the History of Religions. Congress Summary

This volume is the adjunct proceedings on methodology from the XVIIth Congress of the International Association for the History of Religions, held in Mexico City in 1995. Taken together, the essays present a thorough and coherent perspective on studying religion as an item of human culture.

The Invention of God in Indigenous Societies

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The Invention of God in Indigenous Societies by James Cox Summary

Indigenous societies around the world have been historically disparaged by European explorers, colonial officials and Christian missionaries. Nowhere was this more evident than in early descriptions of indigenous religions as savage, primitive, superstitious and fetishistic. Liberal intellectuals, both indigenous and colonial, reacted to this by claiming that, before indigenous peoples ever encountered Europeans, they all believed in a Supreme Being. The Invention of God in Indigenous Societies argues that, by alleging that God can be located at the core of pre-Christian cultures, this claim effectively invents a tradition which only makes sense theologically if God has never left himself without a witness. Examining a range of indigenous religions from North America, Africa and Australasia - the Shona of Zimbabwe, the "Rainbow Spirit Theology" in Australia, the Yupiit of Alaska, and the Māori of New Zealand – the book argues that the interests of indigenous societies are best served by carefully describing their religious beliefs and practices using historical and phenomenological methods – just as would be done in the study of any world religion.

The Invention of God

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The Invention of God by Bill Lauritzen Summary

How did mythology and religion first begin? Where did the ideas of “God,” “spirit” and “soul” come from? The author takes us to ancient times, showing us how early humans struggled to make sense of the world around them. Drawing on history, geology, volcanology, anthropology, chemistry, astronomy, archeology, oceanography, biology and cognitive science, the author reveals the surprising true meaning of our most sacred stories. “Bill Lauritzen is some kind of genius.” Sir Arthur C. Clarke. “Anyone interested in science and religion should read this book.” Dr. Elizabeth Loftus, Ph.D., psychologist, UC Irvine. “Bill Lauritzen has systematically analyzed, from an original viewpoint, the historic sources related to the origins of religion. He summarized his research in this interesting and thought-provoking book.” Mamikon Mnatsakanian, Ph.D, astrophysicist and mathematician, California Institute of Technology.

Religious Identity and the Invention of Tradition

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Religious Identity and the Invention of Tradition by Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Theologie en Religiewetenschap. Conference,Nederlandse Onderzoekschool voor Theologie en Religiewetenschap Summary

"The present book contains the contributions to the first conference of the Netherlands School for Advanced Studies and Religion (NOSTER) ... The conference theme was inspired by Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger's influential volume, The Invention of Tradition."--Introd., p. [3].

The History of Religion

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The History of Religion by John Evelyn Summary

Download or read The History of Religion book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

The history of religion, ed. with notes by R.M. Evanson

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The history of religion, ed. with notes by R.M. Evanson by John Evelyn Summary

Download or read The history of religion, ed. with notes by R.M. Evanson book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

A Manual of Religion and of the History of the Christian Church

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A Manual of Religion and of the History of the Christian Church by Karl Gottlieb Bretschneider Summary

Download or read A Manual of Religion and of the History of the Christian Church book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

The History of Religion. A Rational Account of the True Religion ... Now First Published ... from the Original MS. ... Edited, with Notes, by ... R. M. Evanson

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The History of Religion. A Rational Account of the True Religion ... Now First Published ... from the Original MS. ... Edited, with Notes, by ... R. M. Evanson by John Evelyn Summary

Download or read The History of Religion. A Rational Account of the True Religion ... Now First Published ... from the Original MS. ... Edited, with Notes, by ... R. M. Evanson book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

The Invention of Prophecy

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The Invention of Prophecy by Armin W. Geertz Summary

"Especially effective as a critique and displacement of largely misconceived and widely accepted interpretations of Hopi myth and Hopi political factionalism."--Peter Whiteley, Sarah Lawrence College "The most important contribution to the history of Hopi religion that is currently available."--Fred Eggan, University of Chicago "Especially effective as a critique and displacement of largely misconceived and widely accepted interpretations of Hopi myth and Hopi political factionalism."--Peter Whiteley, Sarah Lawrence College

The Cistercian Evolution

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The Cistercian Evolution by Constance Hoffman Berman Summary

According to the received history, the Cistercian order was founded in Cîteaux, France, in 1098 by a group of Benedictine monks who wished for a stricter community. They sought a monastic life that called for extreme asceticism, rejection of feudal revenues, and manual labor for monks. Their third leader, Stephen Harding, issued a constitution, the Carta Caritatis, that called for the uniformity of custom in all Cistercian monasteries and the establishment of an annual general chapter meeting at Cîteaux. The Cistercian order grew phenomenally in the mid-twelfth century, reaching beyond France to Portugal in the west, Sweden in the north, and the eastern Mediterranean, ostensibly through a process of apostolic gestation, whereby members of a motherhouse would go forth to establish a new house. The abbey at Clairvaux, founded by Bernard in 1115, was alone responsible for founding 68 of the 338 Cistercian abbeys in existence by 1153. But this well-established view of a centrally organized order whose founders envisioned the shape and form of a religious order at its prime is not borne out in the historical record. Through an investigation of early Cistercian documents, Constance Hoffman Berman proves that no reliable reference to Stephen's Carta Caritatis appears before the mid-twelfth century, and that the document is more likely to date from 1165 than from 1119. The implications of this fact are profound. Instead of being a charter by which more than 300 Cistercian houses were set up by a central authority, the document becomes a means of bringing under centralized administrative control a large number of loosely affiliated and already existing monastic houses of monks as well as nuns who shared Cistercian customs. The likely reason for this administrative structuring was to check the influence of the overdominant house of Clairvaux, which threatened the authority of Cîteaux through Bernard's highly successful creation of new monastic communities. For centuries the growth of the Cistercian order has been presented as a spontaneous spirituality that swept western Europe through the power of the first house at Cîteaux. Berman suggests instead that the creation of the religious order was a collaborative activity, less driven by centralized institutions; its formation was intended to solve practical problems about monastic administration. With the publication of The Cistercian Evolution, for the first time the mechanisms are revealed by which the monks of Cîteaux reshaped fact to build and administer one of the most powerful and influential religious orders of the Middle Ages.