Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

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Unsolved Problems in Number Theory by Richard Guy Summary

Mathematics is kept alive by the appearance of new, unsolved problems. This book provides a steady supply of easily understood, if not easily solved, problems that can be considered in varying depths by mathematicians at all levels of mathematical maturity. This new edition features lists of references to OEIS, Neal Sloane’s Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, at the end of several of the sections.

Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

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Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory by Daniel Shanks Summary

Download or read Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory book by clicking button below to visit the book download website. There are multiple format available for you to choose (Pdf, ePub, Doc).

Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

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Solved and Unsolved Problems in Number Theory by Daniel Shanks Summary

The investigation of three problems, perfect numbers, periodic decimals, and Pythagorean numbers, has given rise to much of elementary number theory. In this book, Daniel Shanks, past editor of Mathematics of Computation, shows how each result leads to further results and conjectures. The outcome is a most exciting and unusual treatment. This edition contains a new chapter presenting research done between 1962 and 1978, emphasizing results that were achieved with the help of computers.

Ramsey Theory

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Ramsey Theory by Xiaodong Xu,Meilian Liang,Haipeng Luo Summary

Key problems and conjectures have played an important role in promoting the development of Ramsey theory, a field where great progress has been made during the past two decades, with some old problems solved and many new problems proposed. The present book will be helpful to readers who wish to learn about interesting problems in Ramsey theory, to see how they are interconnected, and then to study them in depth. This book is the first problem book of such scope in Ramsey theory. Many unsolved problems, conjectures and related partial results in Ramsey theory are presented, in areas such as extremal graph theory, additive number theory, discrete geometry, functional analysis, algorithm design, and in other areas. Most presented problems are easy to understand, but they may be difficult to solve. They can be appreciated on many levels and by a wide readership, ranging from undergraduate students majoring in mathematics to research mathematicians. This collection is an essential reference for mathematicians working in combinatorics and number theory, as well as for computer scientists studying algorithms. Contents Some definitions and notations Ramsey theory Bi-color diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Paley graphs and lower bounds for R(k, k) Bi-color off-diagonal classical Ramsey numbers Multicolor classical Ramsey numbers Generalized Ramsey numbers Folkman numbers The Erdős–Hajnal conjecture Other Ramsey-type problems in graph theory On van der Waerden numbers and Szemeredi’s theorem More problems of Ramsey type in additive number theory Sidon–Ramsey numbers Games in Ramsey theory Local Ramsey theory Set-coloring Ramsey theory Other problems and conjectures

The Proofs of Nine Unsolved Problems in Number Theory Field

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The Proofs of Nine Unsolved Problems in Number Theory Field by Kaida Shi Summary

In this monograph, by using the geometric method, the author proves nine unsolved world's baffling mathematical problems in the number theory field (contains Fermat's Last Theorem, Goldbach Conjecture, Twin Primes Conjecture, Proposition-C, $n DEGREES2+1$ Conjecture, Riemann Hypothesis, Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, Hecke Conjecture and Euler's Constant $gamma$). Many mathematicians and amateurs accepted the challenge of but so far inspite of repeated attempt no convincing proofs have been achieved. The author thinks that it seems the available mathematical tools and methods are not enough to prove these conjectures and baffling problems. Hence, in order to solve these mathematical baffling problems, to create a new method is necessary.

Selected Unsolved Problems in Coding Theory

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Selected Unsolved Problems in Coding Theory by David Joyner,Jon-Lark Kim Summary

Using an original mode of presentation, and emphasizing the computational nature of the subject, this book explores a number of the unsolved problems that still exist in coding theory. A well-established and highly relevant branch of mathematics, the theory of error-correcting codes is concerned with reliably transmitting data over a ‘noisy’ channel. Despite frequent use in a range of contexts, the subject still contains interesting unsolved problems that have resisted solution by some of the most prominent mathematicians of recent decades. Employing Sage—a free open-source mathematics software system—to illustrate ideas, this book is intended for graduate students and researchers in algebraic coding theory. The work may be used as supplementary reading material in a graduate course on coding theory or for self-study.

Unsolved Problems in Geometry

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Unsolved Problems in Geometry by Hallard T. Croft,Kenneth Falconer,Richard K. Guy Summary

Mathematicians and non-mathematicians alike have long been fascinated by geometrical problems, particularly those that are intuitive in the sense of being easy to state, perhaps with the aid of a simple diagram. Each section in the book describes a problem or a group of related problems. Usually the problems are capable of generalization of variation in many directions. The book can be appreciated at many levels and is intended for everyone from amateurs to research mathematicians.

Open Problems in Mathematics

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Open Problems in Mathematics by John Forbes Nash, Jr.,Michael Th. Rassias Summary

The goal in putting together this unique compilation was to present the current status of the solutions to some of the most essential open problems in pure and applied mathematics. Emphasis is also given to problems in interdisciplinary research for which mathematics plays a key role. This volume comprises highly selected contributions by some of the most eminent mathematicians in the international mathematical community on longstanding problems in very active domains of mathematical research. A joint preface by the two volume editors is followed by a personal farewell to John F. Nash, Jr. written by Michael Th. Rassias. An introduction by Mikhail Gromov highlights some of Nash’s legendary mathematical achievements. The treatment in this book includes open problems in the following fields: algebraic geometry, number theory, analysis, discrete mathematics, PDEs, differential geometry, topology, K-theory, game theory, fluid mechanics, dynamical systems and ergodic theory, cryptography, theoretical computer science, and more. Extensive discussions surrounding the progress made for each problem are designed to reach a wide community of readers, from graduate students and established research mathematicians to physicists, computer scientists, economists, and research scientists who are looking to develop essential and modern new methods and theories to solve a variety of open problems.

Unsolved Problems in Number Theory

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Unsolved Problems in Number Theory by Richard Guy Summary

Mathematics is kept alive by the appearance of new, unsolved problems. This book provides a steady supply of easily understood, if not easily solved, problems that can be considered in varying depths by mathematicians at all levels of mathematical maturity. This new edition features lists of references to OEIS, Neal Sloane’s Online Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences, at the end of several of the sections.

Riemann's Zeta Function

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Riemann's Zeta Function by Harold M. Edwards Summary

Superb high-level study of one of the most influential classics in mathematics examines landmark 1859 publication entitled “On the Number of Primes Less Than a Given Magnitude,” and traces developments in theory inspired by it. Topics include Riemann's main formula, the prime number theorem, the Riemann-Siegel formula, large-scale computations, Fourier analysis, and other related topics. English translation of Riemann's original document appears in the Appendix.

A Course in Number Theory

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A Course in Number Theory by H. E. Rose Summary

The second edition of this undergraduate textbook is now available in paperback. Covering up-to-date as well as established material, it is the only textbook which deals with all the main areas of number theory, taught in the third year of a mathematics course. Each chapter ends with acollection of problems, and hints and sketch solutions are provided at the end of the book, together with useful tables.

Unsolved Problems in Geometry

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Unsolved Problems in Geometry by Hallard T. Croft,K. J. Falconer,Richard K. Guy Summary

For mathematicians or others who wish to keep up to date with the state of the art of geometrical problems, this collection of problems that are easy to state and understand but are as yet unsolved covers a wide variety of topics including convex sets, polyhedra, packing and covering, tiling, and combinatorial problems. Annotation copyrighted by Book News, Inc., Portland, OR.

Topics in the Theory of Numbers

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Topics in the Theory of Numbers by Janos Suranyi,Paul Erdös Summary

Number theory, the branch of mathematics that studies the properties of the integers, is a repository of interesting and quite varied problems, sometimes impossibly difficult ones. In this book, the authors have gathered together a collection of problems from various topics in number theory that they find beautiful, intriguing, and from a certain point of view instructive.

Prime Obsession

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Prime Obsession by John Derbyshire Summary

In August 1859 Bernhard Riemann, a little-known 32-year old mathematician, presented a paper to the Berlin Academy titled: "On the Number of Prime Numbers Less Than a Given Quantity." In the middle of that paper, Riemann made an incidental remark â€" a guess, a hypothesis. What he tossed out to the assembled mathematicians that day has proven to be almost cruelly compelling to countless scholars in the ensuing years. Today, after 150 years of careful research and exhaustive study, the question remains. Is the hypothesis true or false? Riemann's basic inquiry, the primary topic of his paper, concerned a straightforward but nevertheless important matter of arithmetic â€" defining a precise formula to track and identify the occurrence of prime numbers. But it is that incidental remark â€" the Riemann Hypothesis â€" that is the truly astonishing legacy of his 1859 paper. Because Riemann was able to see beyond the pattern of the primes to discern traces of something mysterious and mathematically elegant shrouded in the shadows â€" subtle variations in the distribution of those prime numbers. Brilliant for its clarity, astounding for its potential consequences, the Hypothesis took on enormous importance in mathematics. Indeed, the successful solution to this puzzle would herald a revolution in prime number theory. Proving or disproving it became the greatest challenge of the age. It has become clear that the Riemann Hypothesis, whose resolution seems to hang tantalizingly just beyond our grasp, holds the key to a variety of scientific and mathematical investigations. The making and breaking of modern codes, which depend on the properties of the prime numbers, have roots in the Hypothesis. In a series of extraordinary developments during the 1970s, it emerged that even the physics of the atomic nucleus is connected in ways not yet fully understood to this strange conundrum. Hunting down the solution to the Riemann Hypothesis has become an obsession for many â€" the veritable "great white whale" of mathematical research. Yet despite determined efforts by generations of mathematicians, the Riemann Hypothesis defies resolution. Alternating passages of extraordinarily lucid mathematical exposition with chapters of elegantly composed biography and history, Prime Obsession is a fascinating and fluent account of an epic mathematical mystery that continues to challenge and excite the world. Posited a century and a half ago, the Riemann Hypothesis is an intellectual feast for the cognoscenti and the curious alike. Not just a story of numbers and calculations, Prime Obsession is the engrossing tale of a relentless hunt for an elusive proof â€" and those who have been consumed by it.

Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory

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Unsolved Problems in Mathematical Systems and Control Theory by Vincent D. Blondel,Alexandre Megretski Summary

This book provides clear presentations of more than sixty important unsolved problems in mathematical systems and control theory. Each of the problems included here is proposed by a leading expert and set forth in an accessible manner. Covering a wide range of areas, the book will be an ideal reference for anyone interested in the latest developments in the field, including specialists in applied mathematics, engineering, and computer science. The book consists of ten parts representing various problem areas, and each chapter sets forth a different problem presented by a researcher in the particular area and in the same way: description of the problem, motivation and history, available results, and bibliography. It aims not only to encourage work on the included problems but also to suggest new ones and generate fresh research. The reader will be able to submit solutions for possible inclusion on an online version of the book to be updated quarterly on the Princeton University Press website, and thus also be able to access solutions, updated information, and partial solutions as they are developed.

Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics

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Unsolved Problems in Astrophysics by John N. Bahcall Summary

Essays discuss the present state of knowledge following recent discoveries about the structure of the universe, galaxies, quasars, neutrinos, and other topics, and suggest areas for future research